25th April 1974 Carnation Revolution - 25 de Abril 1974 Revolução dos Cravos

25 April 2008 | Posted by  Leave a Comment
The Carnation Revolution or Revolução dos Cravos was a largely bloodless coup which occurred in the nation of Portugal in 1974. The result of the Carnation Revolution was the toppling of a dictatorship which had prevailed for almost 50 years. After a brief period of turmoil, Portugal emerged as a democratic country, to the great delight of many of its citizens and the world in general.

The history of this event began in 1926, when a military coup established the Estado Novo, overthrowing the nascent First Republic of Portugal, a democratic government which had replaced Portugal's monarchy in 1910. Portuguese citizens chafed under the Estado Novo, but the end of this regime was ultimately brought about by the actions of the military, rather than the citizens. Military officers with left-wing inclinations masterminded their coup d'état in response to the sacking of a Portuguese general who spoke out against Portuguese colonial policy.

In the early hours of 25 April 1974, the Carnation Revolution began in the Portuguese city of Lisbon. The military forces quickly overwhelmed the government, sparking spontaneous demonstrations in the street, in which civilians ran out to mingle with the soldiers, despite orders to stay inside. At the time, carnations were flooding the famous central flower market of Lisbon, and many citizens put them into the gun barrels of the soldiers, inspiring the name “Carnation Revolution” to describe this event in Portuguese history.

In February 1974, Caetano determined to remove General António Spínola in the face of increasing dissent by Spinola over the promotion of military officers and the direction of Portuguese colonial policy. At this point, several left-wing military officers who opposed the war formed a conspiracy - the Movimento das Forças Armadas (MFA, "Armed Forces Movement"), to overthrow the government by military coup. The MFA was headed by Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho and joined by Salgueiro Maia. The movement was significantly aided by other officers in the Portuguese army who supported Spinola and democratic civil and military reform. Some observers have speculated that Francisco da Costa Gomes actually led the revolution.



There were two secret signals in the military coup: first the airing of the song "E depois do adeus" by Paulo de Carvalho, Portugal's entry in the 6th of April 1974 Eurovision Song Contest, which alerted the rebel captains and soldiers to begin the coup. Next, on April 25, 1974 at 12:15 am, the national radio broadcast Grândola, Vila Morena, a song by Zeca Afonso, a progressive folk singer forbidden on Portuguese radio at the time. This was the signal that the MFA gave to take over strategic points of power in the country and "announced" that the revolution had started and nothing would stop it except "the possibility of a regime's repression".

Six hours later, the Caetano regime relented. Despite repeated appeals from the "captains of April" (of the MFA) on the radio inciting the population to stay at home, thousands of Portuguese descended on the streets, mixing themselves with the military insurgents. One of the central points of those gathering was the Lisbon flower market, then richly stocked with carnations, which were in season. Some military insurgents would put these flowers in their gun-barrels, an image which was shown on television around the world. This would be the origin of the name of this "Carnation revolution". To clarify the above context, this was not a popular revolution but a military coup- there were no mass demonstrations by the general population prior to the coup.

Caetano found refuge in the main Lisbon military police station at the Largo do Carmo. This building was surrounded by the MFA, which pressured him to cede power to General Spínola. Both Caetano (the prime minister) and Américo Thomaz (the President) fled to Brazil. Caetano spent the rest of his life in Brazil, while Thomaz returned to Portugal a few years later.

The revolution was closely watched from neighbouring Spain, where the government and opposition were planning for the succession of Francisco Franco, who died a year later, in 1975.

25 de Abril, “faltam cinco minutos para as vinte e três horas…
Abril 24, 2007 22h55

Convosco, Paulo de Carvalho com o Eurofestival 74, E Depois do Adeus “

1ª senha: a voz de João Paulo Dinis anuncia aos microfones dos Emissores Associados de Lisboa Faltam cinco minutos para as vinte e três horas. Convosco, Paulo de Carvalho com o Eurofestival 74 «E Depois do Adeus». Era o primeiro sinal para o início das operações militares a desencadear pelo Movimento das Forças Armadas



A better sound version



Vencedora do Festival da Canção de 1974.
Música: José Calvário
Letra: José Niza

Quis saber quem sou
O que faço aqui
Quem me abandonou
De quem me esqueci
Perguntei por mim
Quis saber de nós
Mas o mar
Não me traz
Tua voz.

Em silêncio, amor
Em tristeza e fim
Eu te sinto, em flor
Eu te sofro, em mim
Eu te lembro, assim
Partir é morrer
Como amar
É ganhar
E perder

Tu vieste em flor
Eu te desfolhei
Tu te deste em amor
Eu nada te dei
Em teu corpo, amor
Eu adormeci
Morri nele
E ao morrer
Renasci

E depois do amor
E depois de nós
O dizer adeus
O ficarmos sós
Teu lugar a mais
Tua ausência em mim
Tua paz
Que perdi
Minha dor que aprendi
De novo vieste em flor
Te desfolhei…

E depois do amor
E depois de nós
O adeus
O ficarmos sós.

Abril 25, 2007 00h20
Nos estúdios da Rádio Renascença, situados na Rua Capelo, ao Chiado, Paulo Coelho, que ignora os compromissos assumidos pelos seus colegas do programa Limite, lê anúncios publicitários. Apesar dos sinais desesperados de Manuel Tomás, que se encontra na cabina técnica acompanhado de Carlos Albino, para sair do ar, o radialista prossegue paulatinamente a sua tarefa. Após 19 segundos de aguda tensão, Tomás dá uma "sapatada" na mão do técnico José Videira, provocando o arranque da bobine com a gravação que continha a célebre senha: a canção Grândola Vila Morena, de Zeca Afonso.



Grândola, vila morena
Terra da fraternidade
O povo é quem mais ordena
Dentro de ti, ó cidade

Dentro de ti, ó cidade
O povo é quem mais ordena
Terra da fraternidade
Grândola, vila morena

Em cada esquina um amigo
Em cada rosto igualdade
Grândola, vila morena
Terra da fraternidade

Terra da fraternidade
Grândola, vila morena
Em cada rosto igualdade
O povo é quem mais ordena

À sombra d’uma azinheira
Que já não sabia a idade
Jurei ter por companheira
Grândola a tua vontade

Grândola a tua vontade
Jurei ter por companheira
À sombra duma azinheira
Que já não sabia a idade

E às 04,20 minutos da madrugada do 25 de Abril, por Joaquim Furtado era lido o primeiro comunicado do Movimento das Forças Armadas.

Aqui Posto de Comando do Movimento das Forças Armadas.
As Forças Armadas Portuguesas apelam para todos os habitantes da cidade de Lisboa no sentido de recolherem a suas casas, nas quais se devem conservar com a máxima calma. Esperamos sinceramente que a gravidade da hora que vivemos não seja tristemente assinalada por qualquer acidente pessoal para o que apelamos para o bom senso dos comandos das forças militarizadas no sentido de serem evitados quaisquer confrontos com as Forças Armadas. Tal confronto, além de desnecessário, só poderá conduzir a sérios prejuízos individuais que enlutariam e criariam divisões entre os portugueses, o que há que evitar a todo o custo.
Não obstante a expressa preocupação de não fazer correr a mínima gota de sangue de qualquer português, apelamos para o espírito cívico e profissional da classe médica, esperando a sua acorrência aos hospitais, a fim de prestar a sua eventual colaboração que se deseja, sinceramente, desnecessária.


Capitães de abril



Capitães de Abril (April Captains, 1997 fiction feature film), by Maria de Medeiros.

Timeline of the Carnation Revolution

00:20

The song Grândola, Vila Morena, by Zeca Afonso is broadcasted in Radio Renascença (a radio station), the main signal of the MFA, giving the go-ahead to the troops to execute the military operations.

03:00

Start of the military operations, according to the "Operations General Plan" (Plano Geral das Operações).

03:10

Main movements of the MFA forces:

- Headquarters of the Lisbon Military Region occupied by a company of the BC 5

- Rádio Clube Português (a radio station), defended by another company of the BC 5 and occupied by the 10th Commando Group

- Rádio Televisão Portuguesa (the television broadcaster), Lumiar studios occupied by the EPAM

- Emissora Nacional (another radio station), studios occupied by the CTCS

- Positioning of an EPA artillery battery in Almada

- The EPC goes to Terreiro do Paço (downtown Lisbon, where the ministeries are located)

- The EPI goes out to occupy the Lisbon Airport

- Hunter companies occupy the antennas of Rádio Clube Português

- The 5th Commando Group leaves Tomar to engage the RC 7

- A force of the 14th Infantry Regiment joins other forces in Figueira da Foz

- A force of the Engineer School leaves Tancos

- The CIOE goes out to occupy the DGS headquarters in Porto

04:00

The BC 5 protects the house of General Spínola.

04:20

The Rádio Clube Português broadcasts the first announcement of the MFA. The Lisbon Airport is occupied by the EPI.

04:45

Broadcast of the second MFA announcement.

05:15

The Tires air-field is occupied by the CIAAC. Broadcast of the third MFA announcement.

05:45

The EPC occupies Terreiro do Paço. Broadcast of the fourth MFA announcement.

06:00

The EPC lays siege to the ministeries, the Lisbon City Hall, the approaches to the Civilian Government, the Banco de Portugal and the Marconi Radio.

06:30

A platoon of the RC 7, a unit loyal to the government, arrives at Terreiro do Paço, led by Second-Lieutenant David e Silva who, after talks, joins the MFA.

06:45

The MFA Command Post (RE 1, located in Pontinha, outskirts of Lisbon) learns that Marcelo Caetano, Prime-Minister, is in the GNR Carmo Headquarters (Lisbon).

07:00

The North Group goes to the Peniche Fort, a DGS prison. The 2nd Heavy Artillery Regiment takes up position near the Arrábida Bridge and the EPA near Cristo-Rei, in Almada. In Terreiro do Paço, officers of the Military Police and Captain Maltez of the PSP, join Salgueiro Maia, after talks.

07:30

Broadcast of another MFA announcement. Arrival at Ribeira das Naus (near Terreiro do Paço) of a new force of the RC 7, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Ferrand de Almeida.

08:00

A force of the RL 2, enemy of the MFA, takes up position in Ribeira das Naus. Lieutenant-Colonel Ferrand de Almeida is arrested by Salgueiro Maia.

08:30

A PSP force arrives at Terreiro do Paço but doesn't even try to engage Salgueiro Maia's troops.

09:00

The frigate Gago Coutinho - part of NATO forces on exercises - takes up position in front of Terreiro do Paço, receiving orders to fire on Maia's troops, but doesn't obey.

09:30

The Defense, Information and Tourism, Army, and Navy ministers, the Chief of General Staff, the Military Governor of Lisbon, the under-secretary of State of the Army and Admiral Henrique Tenreiro escape through a hole that they opened in the wall of the Ministry of the Army and go to the RL 2, where they set up the Command Post of the forces loyal to the government.

09:35

Forces loyal to the government, led by Brigadier Junqueira dos Reis, arrive at Terreiro do Paço.

10:00

In Ribeira das Naus, Second-Lieutenant Fernando Sottomayor, of the RC 7, doesn't follow Brigadier Junqueira dos Reis' orders to fire on Salgueiro Maia and his troops, which prompts the Brigadier to arrest Sottomayor and to order the soldiers to fire. The soldiers also refuse, so Junqueira dos Reis fires two shots into the air, leaves, and goes to Arsenal Street.

10:30

Surrender of Major Pato Anselmo, of the RC 7, and broadcast of a new MFA announcement.

10:45

In Arsenal Street, Brigadier Junqueira dos Reis gives order to fire on Lieutenant Alfredo Assunção, who was sent by Salgueiro Maia to negotiate with the forces of Junqueira dos Reis. Having again been desobeyed by his troops, he ends up punching Lieutenant Assunção three times.

11:30

The MFA Command Post orders a military column, led by Major Jaime Neves, to occupy the Portuguese Legion in Penha de França (Lisbon) and a column, led by Salgueiro Maia, to the Carmo Headquarters, where Marcelo Caetano, Rui Patrício (Minister of Foreign Affairs) and Moreira Baptista (Minister of Information and Tourism) were. Salgueiro Maia leads the EPC forces that will besiege the GNR Headquarters, in Carmo, Lisbon.

11:45

The MFA informs the country, through Rádio Clube Português, that controls the situation, from North to South.

11:50

The officers that were arrested in Terreiro do Paço are sent to the MFA Command Post, in Pontinha.

12:00

A force of the RI 1 tries to stop the EPC column from reaching the Carmo Headquarters, but Salgueiro Maia convinces them to join him.

12:15

The EPC column, led by Salgueiro Maia, arrives at Chiado, through the Carmo Street, together with a crowd of civilian supporters.

12:30

The forces of Salgueiro Maia besiege Carmo and receive orders from the MFA Command Post to open fire on the GNR Headquarters, to force Marcelo Caetano to surrender.

12:45

The crowd distributes food, milk and cigarettes to the troops stationed in Carmo. GNR forces, loyal to the government, take up positions on the rear of Salgueiro Maia's troops.

13:00

The Brigadier Junqueira dos Reis tries to besiege Salgueiro Maia's forces with the help of the GNR, Shock Police, and a company of RI 1. Forces of RC 3 arrive at the Tagus River Bridge and head to Carmo. A new MFA announcement is broadcasted.

13:30

A gunship flies over Carmo, causing anxiety in the troops and civilians.

13:40

MFA forces occupy the headquarters of the Portuguese Legion.

14:00

The company of RI 1 that supported Junqueira dos Reis joins Salgueiro Maia. Talks begin, through mediators, between General Spínola and Marcelo Caetano, to obtain the surrender of the Prime-Minister.

14:30

Broadcast of a new MFA announcement, informing that the main objectives were occupied. The RC 3 squadron, led by Captain Ferreira, besieges the troops of Brigadier Junqueira dos Reis.

15:00

Following an order of the Command Post, Salgueiro Maia, using a megaphone, makes an ultimatum to obtain the surrender of the GNR, threatening to blow-up the gates of the Carmo Headquarters. A new MFA announcement is broadcasted.

15:15

EPA forces receive orders to free the troops detained in the Trafaria Fort, following the events of March 16 (an early attempt at a military coup d'etat).

15:30

Firing on the front of the Carmo Headquarters, ordered by Salgueiro Maia, which forces the talks for the surrender of Marcelo Caetano to restart.

16:15

Elements of the DGS open fire on the crowd that surrounds its headquarters, in António Maria Cardoso Street, causing one death and wounding several.

16:25

Resulting from the lack of progress of the negotiations for the surrender of Marcelo Caetano, Salgueiro Maia, puts an armoured vehicle in front of the Headquarters and begins the countdown to open fire. Suddenly he is interrupted by Pedro Feytor-Pinto and Nuno Távora, from the Information and Tourism State Department, who carries a message from General Spínola to Marcelo Caetano. Salgueiro Maia authorizes the entry of those two messengers into the Headquarters.

16:30

Telephone contacts between Spínola, Marcelo Caetano and the MFA Command Post.

17:00

Salgueiro Maia enters the Carmo Headquarters and demands the surrender of Marcelo Caetano, who replies by saying that he would only surrender to a General-Officer so that the Power doesn't "fall in the street". The MFA Command Post mandates General Spínola to go into the Carmo Headquarters to receive the surrender of Marcelo Caetano.

17:30

Broadcast of another MFA announcement.

18:00

Spínola arrives at Carmo and, joined by Salgueiro Maia, enters the Headquarters to talk to Marcelo Caetano.

* 18:20

Broadcast of a new MFA announcement.

18:30

A Chaimite (a Portuguese armoured personnel carrier) vehicle enters the Carmo Headquarters to carry Marcelo Caetano to Pontinha.

18:40

MFA declaration on RTP.

18:45

Law 171/74: abolishment of the DGS, Portuguese Legion and Portuguese Youth.

19:00

Marcelo Caetano and the ministers Rui Patrício and Moreira Baptista board the Chaimite.

19:30

Salgueiro Maia ends the siege to Carmo and drives Marcelo Caetano and the ministers to the MFA Command Post, in the Chaimite, completely surrounded by an enormous crowd shouting "Victory! Victory! Victory!". The crowd is all over Lisbon during the course of the Chaimite to the Command Post and, about 20 minutes later, a new MFA announcement is broadcasted.

20:00

Broadcast of the MFA press release through the Rádio Clube Português.

21:00

The Chaimite arrives at the MFA Command Post with Marcelo Caetano and the two ministers, that are detained there until the next day. Elements of the DGS fires on the crowd surrounding its headquarters, killing 4 people and wounding 45. Forces from the Navy join the MFA, forcing the DGS to surrender.

22:00

Paratrooper forces arrive at Caxias prison (Lisbon), where the DGS still fights on. A new announcement of the MFA is broadcasted.

23:30

Laws that dismiss the fascist leaders and (through 171/74) abolish the DGS, Portuguese Legion and Portuguese Youth are approved.

More on 25 de Abril Revolução dos Cravos:

25 de Abril

Cronologia
BBC on this Day
Wikipedia


13 comments »

Sininho said...

What is this?
It´s January, not April!
Did you give up Madeleine?

Did Clarence manage to wash your brain too?...
(I'm joking, don't be offended)

I loved to come here and read the news.
And there are still news about it.

Joana Morais said...

In our revolution, we wanted freedom of speech because this was necessary for democracy.
In times where freedom of speech is being suppressed(Mirror forum, blogs, media) I thought that people should remember that if we allow censorship we are headed down the road to a totalitarian regime.

Outono said...

UM VERDADEIRO HINO À LIBERDADE!


E estas vozes e palavras pela procura e defesa da verdade e da justiça.... há quem não as queira!

E ABRIL é quando a gente quiser!
Lá porque estamos em Janeiro....

Joana Morais said...

25 de Abril Sempre!!!

Com a revolução do 25 de Abril de 1974, o povo português conquistou a Liberdade, com o processo revolucionário que então se seguiu, o povo conquistou direitos fundamentais.

Os sucessivos governos dos partidos de direita ou da pseudo esquerda, tudo têm feito para por em causa esses direitos, só a resistência dos portugueses e dos verdadeiros partidos de esquerda impediu que fossem mais longe. Defender Abril é o dever de todos os democratas, Resistir é o caminho.

O poema “O Futuro” de José Carlos Ary dos Santos, e por isso mesmo tão actual como quando foi escrito.



“O FUTURO”

Isto vai meus amigos isto vai
um passo atrás são sempre dois em frente
e um povo verdadeiro não se trai
não quer gente mais gente que outra gente

Isto vai meus amigos isto vai
o que é preciso é ter sempre presente
que o presente é um tempo que se vai
e o futuro é o tempo resistente

Depois da tempestade há a bonança
que é verde como a cor que tem a esperança
quando a água de Abril sobre nós cai.

O que é preciso é termos confiança
se fizermos de Maio a nossa lança
isto vai meus amigos isto vai.

José Carlos Ary dos Santos

Outono said...

Linda Menina!Linda Joana!

Por tudo e ,hoje por nos fazer reviver aquele lindissimo dia.A Joana tem apenas diferença de 3/4 anos do meu Filho(1970)e liguei o PC para darmos "gritos de Felicidade"(ele não mora em Portugal).Ainda me arrepia de comoção todos esses acontecimentos.Maravilhoso!

* E também,tendo colocado aqui a Nossa História Recente,pode ser que os que desconhecem ou querem desconhecer,poderão beber a conquista da Liberdade!

Um enorme Bem Haja!
E, principalmente a TODOS os que durante o Fascismo lutaram duramente por nós;mudaram mentalidades;mudaram as atitudes de muitos,tornando possível o que aconteceu de BOM em 74.

" Não me façam vir para a rua ,gritar!"; "Os vampiros";"Traz um amigo também".
Tenho saudades do Zeca.
(não retiro, DE MODO ALGUM,o mérito a tantos e tantas que trabalharam para nós,sacrificando-se).

BOM DIA,JOANA!

Ana Castro said...

Mais uma vez Joana, obrigado. Emociona-me ver estas imagens e relembrar este dia que mudou a nossa história. é preciso não esquecer, não podemos deixar de lutar pelo que foi conquistado. Obrigado por esta página e por esta homenagem ao 25 de Abril que ainda vive no coração e na vontade muitos de nós.

Joana Morais said...

Obrigada Outono e Ana Castro, um grande e afectuoso abraço às duas.

25 de Abril Sempre! Viva a Liberdade!

Outono said...

Viva a LIBERDADE! E O 25 de ABRIL,SEMPRE!

Muitissimo obrigada pelo seu abraço afectuoso. O mesmo para Si!

Continuação do EXCELENTE TRABALHO aqui neste Seu famoso Blog.

Tudo de muito Bom!

Anonymous said...

Minha linda Joana: muitos parabéns.Obrigada por ter aqui colocado 1 comentário meu,de Janeiro.
25 de Abril sempre! Também foi assim,ontem,que o meu Filho,da Sua idade,me respondeu à minha sms que lhes desejava (a Ele e Nora) 1 bom 25Abril.
Os Filhos da Revolução!
Belos Filhos!

outono(agora c/ outro "petit nom" depois de,2 comentaristas, me terem querido derrubar,aqui neste blog,pela minha idade).E como Outono é sempre lindo,retirei para não ser ofendido.

Lindas Meninas! Lindas,lindas.

Jawes said...

Ola, Joana. Talvez não tenhamos a mesma idade (tinha 18 anos em 1974), mas as suas palavras me vão directamente ao coração. Obrigado, um abraço. 25 de Abril SEMPRE !
Jorge Alves

Anonymous said...

Here in UK also Joana, freedom is being whittled away and it is a disgrace that valid comments about the McCanns are not printed in what is supposed to be a 'free' press.

As for the persecution of those who dared criticise the McCanns' 'abduction' fairy story, even to the point of the McCanns wanting them jailed, or taking their homes and possessions, it beggars belief we should be seeing this attempt to silence those who dare to speak truth by using the Courts in this way, and lazy justices who can't be bothered to read up on the facts of the case for themselves.

Have they so soon forgotten this is how Robert Maxwell was able to silence his critics by using threats and injunctions against them, until it was discovered he had been robbing people blind for years, and the people who were silenced were those who had been trying to warn of this. Just because he had the money to take legal action against them he got away with it for years.

The McCanns have got themselves millions also, and have been using it to silence critics when the money was sent to them in good faith for a 'search' for Madeleine. What does that say about their priorities?

Justice is supposed to be blind, but obviously not when the rich have the upper hand by employing spin doctors and PR agents, and can reinvent themselves at will, and can employ expensive lawyers who know all the tricks. No, justice in that case is not blind, it is deliberately blinkered, and in the case of the McCanns, the media have also been blinkered.

Is this a case of the SY investigators having had blinkers fitted as well, even before they started the 'review'? If so, are we going to now see that the McCanns really can walk on water.

Mike said...

Joana That is a awesome point. It's the same if we allow governments to control everything then we will lose what our previous generation fought long and hard for. Many people passed away just to give us the current freedoms we have now.

Anonymous said...

Do the portuguese remember the northern star?

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